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ICTs for Social Change


Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for Social Change

APC WNSP began in the early 1990s and continues to be one of the strongest women’s internet-based networks in the world. Many of its members were the first providers of internet access to women’s groups in their countries. APC WNSP is an international facilitator of civil society’s engagement with ICTs and its related concerns in policies and practices by addressing policy and operational issues, and feeding practical experiences into national and international contexts.

The network continues to pioneer relevant uses of ICTs for civil society, especially in developing countries. It facilitates the strategic use of ICTs in support of women’s actions and agenda to amplify the attention given to issues of concern to women, reinforce solidarity campaigns, enhance traditional women’s networking activities and defend the rights of women to participate equally in both civil and public spheres.

It works with women and their organisations to integrate using ICTs in order to strengthen their capacities, improve the flow of information within their organisations, empower their members, and develop their organisation’s overall ability to achieve strategic objectives. Strategic use of ICTs involves harnessing these technologies to organise and transform information into knowledge and disseminate this to the wider global community to promote development of cultures based on values of equality, freedom and justice, including gender equality.

This section serves as a background document to the GEM tool by providing its users a basic understanding of gender and ICT issues in the overall context of ICTs for development.

Defining ICTs

Information and communication are processes or activities integral to society. Every person must have the means and access to information and should be able to exercise the right to freedom of opinion and expression, which includes the right to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any form of media, regardless of frontiers.

Information and communication technologies consist of technologies and tools that people use to share, distribute and gather information, and communicate with one another using computers and interconnected computer networks. ICT Policy: A Beginner’s Handbook (ed. Chris Nicol) published by APC, groups these new ICTs into three categories:

  • Information technology uses computers, which have become indispensable to modern societies to process data and save time and effort;
  • Telecommunications technologies include telephones (with fax) and radio broadcasting and television, often through satellites;
  • Networking technologies, the best known of which is the internet, but which has extended to mobile phone technology, voice over IP telephony (VOIP), satellite communications, and other forms of communication

The term ICTs has been used to encompass technological innovation and convergence in information and communication transforming our world into information or knowledge societies. The rapid development of these technologies has blurred the boundaries between information, communication and various types of media. The accelerating convergence between telecommunications, broadcasting multimedia and ICTs is the driving force that increasingly changes many aspects of our lives, including knowledge dissemination, social interaction, economic and business practices, political engagement, media, education, health, leisure and entertainment. [Ramilo and Villanueva 6] The internet is the most complex expression of these technological developments with its capacity to project multimedia in cyberspace.

The last decade (1990s) saw the power of these technologies as instruments for advancing economic and social development that create new types of economic activity and employment opportunities; improve health-care delivery; and enhance networking, participation, and advocacy. ICTs also revealed the potential to improve interaction between governments and citizens, as a result, fostering transparency and accountability in governance. Commercial and community media have taken advantage of technological convergence by using the internet for radio and television webcasting.

Also catalysts to political and social empowerment of women, ICTs promote gender equality for as long as the gender dimensions of the Information Society – in terms of users’ needs, conditions of access, policies, applications and regulatory frameworks – are properly understood and adequately addressed. Social and cultural constructed gender roles and relationships play a cross-cutting role in shaping the capacity of women and men to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. [Primo 8]

Still, even as electronic media develop at a fast rate replacing old technologies, many cultures continue to retrieve and disseminate information – record, store and transmit wisdom and history – through speech, drama, painting, song or dance. In many instances, ICTs are now used to augment and enrich these traditional communication forms and practices. As such, GEM defines ICTs to include the use of both new and older technologies, and its convergence with traditional forms of communication practiced in many communities.

Gender equality, development and the information society

Enthusiasm over the rapid growth of ICTs and their applications has generated a variety of projects that focus on fostering development. Many of these initiatives are directed at arresting the growing divide between countries and communities with access and mastery of new information technologies and those that lack these technologies. Access to ICTs is typically divided along traditional lines of development defining societies and countries into the “haves” and the “have nots” or what is known as the digital divide or digital exclusion. This digital divide is often characterised by high levels of access to technologies including the internet but with infrastructures in less developed nations at a very low scale due to poverty, lack of resources, illiteracy and low levels of education. For example, teledensity figures alone from 1997-2002 collected by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in 2005 illustrate the yawning gap in access. There are 65 phone lines available for 100 persons in the US in contrast to two continents: Asia has only 11.77 phone lines for 100 persons while in Africa, a hundred people must share three telephone lines (2.81 phone lines for 100 people). The rapid technological advances in the last decade driven by a highly competitive and profitoriented ICT industry has led to products, services and technologies that primarily cater to the needs of viable and profitable markets. As a result, non-profitable communities and markets are left on the margins of ICT development and advancement.

Studies on the impact of ICT development have come up with findings that show the complex effects of ICTs. A study by the International Development Research Center of Canada (IDRC) that investigates ICTs for poverty reduction strategies maintains that ICTs generate changes in markets, private and public sectors and economies in developed countries. It cites the contribution of these technologies to improvements in productivity, growth and poverty reduction. The trend, particularly in the last five years, shows that

“ICTs have been applied to systemic improvements important to poverty reduction such as education, health and social services delivery, broader government transparency and accountability, and helping empower citizens and build social organization around rights and gender equality.”

However, the study also points out that while documentation of experiences increases, there continues to be a need to consolidate research and evaluate lessons to fuel effective use of ICTs for development strategies, including support for pro-poor initiatives such as girls’ primary education. [Spence 4-6]

On the other hand, an infoDev report published in 2003 posits that these technologies were hardly transformative tools as they have been heralded to be despite huge resources that were invested in developing countries and among the poor to increase their access to ICTs. But even as ICTs are not panaceas in combating poverty, infoDev points out that ICTs can be harnessed for development and poverty reduction by “mainstream(ing) these as tools of and subordinate them to broader strategies and programs for building opportunity and empowering the poor”. The report further states that an ICT development agenda should be more realistic about broader changes required in developing countries and its role in affecting these changes. Such an agenda should be much more selective and think more strategically on the attention and resources devoted to these technologies. [McNamara 3]

This means that the broader goals of achieving gender equality, women’s empowerment and promotion of women’s rights should be prioritised in the field of ICT for development. The significance of this is magnified by the fact that the majority of the world’s population that remains untouched by the ICT revolution are women. This remains true at present even though in 1995, the Beijing Declaration has already stated: “Eradication of poverty based on sustained economic growth, social development, environmental protection and social justice requires the involvement of women in economic and social development, equal opportunities and the full and equal participation of women and men as agents and beneficiaries of people-centred sustainable development.”

APC WNSP's approach to gender and ICTs

APC WNSP works to transform relations of inequality using ICTs as tools for social action and means to achieve positive social change. Since it began its work in the early 1990s during the preparations for the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, APC WNSP along with other pioneering women’s information and communication networks, has been in the thick of a range of activities that address problems of basic access and connectivity. Our members raise awareness on the importance of women’s involvement in ICTs, articulate women’s access to ICTs, facilitate their participation in determining the design and distribution of technologies, and conduct ICT training workshops.

In 1995, APC WNSP with other organisations called for greater women and citizens’ participation on the future of the information and communications industry and universal access of the internet. The Beijing Platform for Action addressed these demands through resolutions stating that women should be empowered by enhancing their skills, knowledge and access to information technology. The Platform focused on women’s increased access and participation in decisionmaking in media and ICTs to overcome negative and stereotype portrayals of women and encouraged presentation of balanced, non-stereotyped and diverse images of women in media.

The five-year review report on the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action (Beijing+5) averred that gender di fferences and disparities have been traditionally ignored in policies and programmes dealing with development and dissemination of improved technologies. The outcome of the five-year review recommended exploration and implementation of further actions and initiatives to avoid new forms of exclusion and ensure equal access and opportunities to women and girls with respect to developments in science and technology.

The women’s movement was one of the first to create and manage its own online workspaces and communities. At the World Conference in Beijing, access to and control of mainstream media were dominated by corporate and state interests. But the internet provided the opportunity for women to publish information, news and analyses from a gender perspective. Recent years have seen women publish their own newspapers, air radio programmes and produce their own TV shows. Although a greater number of women now use new communication technologies and the internet in their work, the issues identified in Beijing+5 continue to hold true for many women around the world. At the same time, the current pace of organisations produces new challenges and impacts that need to be addressed in relation to gender equality.

To respond to these new challenges, women’s organisations, especially those more directly involved in communications continue to develop advocacy and policy proposals in ICTs from a gender perspective.

Do ICTs contribute to gender equality and women's empowerment?

To use new technologies as instruments for transformation, it is important to look into existing gender issues in ICTs in order to formulate and implement strategies for women’s empowerment.

Over the past 10 years, APC WNSP’s advocacy of integrating a gender perspective in ICT and development has identified several important concerns such as:

  • Access and Control
  • Education, Training and Development of Skills
  • Industry and Labour
  • Content and Language
  • Power and Decision-making
  • Privacy and Security
  • Trafficking of Women, Pornography and Censorship


Access and control

Women’s access to and control of ICTs are influenced by factors that affect men and women differently. A gendered approach gives a more comprehensive and sensitive view into these issues. Women’s access to and control of ICTs are determined by factors such as gender discrimination in jobs and education, social class, illiteracy, geographic location (North or South, urban or rural), lack of access to financial resources and high costs of access.

The development of infrastructure includes many choices that involve decisions about locations of facilities, the nature and choice of technology, costs and pricing. Women tend to have less disposable income to spend on communications. In many cases, public access centres such as telecentres, information centres or cybercafés are located in places that fail to take into account the impediments to women. Common problems associated with this are inappropriate opening times, safety issues and lack of transport. The availability or lack of women support staff and trainers in these facilities also impacts on women and girls’ use of these resources. Literacy and education, geographic location, mobility and social class affect the capability of women in using information and knowledge.

Thus, a great majority of the world’s women have no access to ICTs or to any type of modern communication system. As information dynamics accelerates its migration towards the internet, those without access are bound to be excluded and pushed further to the fringes.

But ensuring connectivity is not enough. Know-how is equally as important as access. ICT development programmes for women that too often concentrate excessively on access to technology and information sources paying less attention to training and skills development have been criticised for looking at superficial means of empowering women in the long run.

Education, Training and development of skills

Gender and cultural barriers impede women from fully engaging in the technological world. Illiteracy rates of women in developing countries are far higher than that of men. Two-thirds of the world’s 870 million illiterate people are women with the lowest literacy rate in 13 African countries. Sixty percent of the 100 mil lion school age chi ldren in the developing world are girls who grow up without access to basic education. (2000 and 2001 statistics) [Primo 39]

Research by Maureen Ebben and Cheris Kramarai pointed out that training programmes for women are often ad-hoc, alienating, and fail to address women’s needs, experiences or inexperience. [cited by Wood] Some ways to correct these problems are to ensure the participation of girls in the programmes, to engage both women and men trainers, and to provide user and mentor support within communities, recognising women’s limitations in mobility. Likewise, learning programmes should be developed for women as users, technicians, policymakers and change agents. Women should also be encouraged to take part in the technical and design aspects of ICTs. Training programmes for women should focus not only on how to use the technology and software, but also on how to find, manage, produce and disseminate information, and how to develop policies and strategies for effective intervention and use of ICTs.

ICT trainings should also take into account women’s needs in matters of affordability and availability of software and user support. Software used in the course of the training exercises should be available to them even after the training courses.

Initiatives and projects on educating women in poor communities and on computer literacy have demonstrated the value of ICTs for women. A study of nine projects, specifically designed for women and youth in South Asia showed that using ICTs encourages and pushes different models of teaching and learning that are practical, functional and hands-on. [Slater and Tacchi 89] New ICTs are also highly adaptable to suit learner preferences and priorities, thus opening up possibilities for designing and providing education in forms that are locally relevant.

Industry and labour

Labour is highly sex-segregated in the ICT industry. Women are found in disproportionately high numbers in the lowest paid and least secure jobs. The gender dimension of ICTs is manifested in telework, flexi-time, and workat- home arrangements where women have limited rights – receive meagre pay, and lack health, social or job securities. Women’s wages or earnings whether home-based or in industries and institutions as a result of new technologies do not entirely guarantee a change in a family’s division of labour for her benefit or development. Men continue to avoid housework and women find themselves burdened with dual or triple roles.

Technological changes also affect the quality and quantity of women’s work. New technologies have intensified health, and environmental issues along with issues on women’s employment benefits. Some of these are the contractual nature of jobs, intensification of workloads, wages, training, health and safety matters like visual display unit (VDU) hazards and repetitive strain injuries as observed by Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbatham. [cited by Wood]

The speed of technological development has also increased the demand for more advanced ICT skills from those employed in the sector. The rate of technological obsolescence correlates with the rate by which technical skills become “old” and obsolete. Workers in the ICT sector must continually improve their skills in order to remain employed in the industry. Given that women fulfil double/triple roles in their home and work life, taking the opportunities to upgrade their skills even creates conflicts in their multiple roles. Most women must find extra time and/or additional funds to avail of training courses. Older women who have been working in computing, in particular, run the risk of losing their jobs to younger workers (men and women alike) who have acquired up-to-date ICT skills.

Another trend in the ICT industry that gravely affects women is outsourcing and teleworking. More recently, technological changes can now segment different parts of the production process, enabling relocation of information processing within the ICT sector. This shift towards business process outsourcing (BPO) is a vital feature and a pressing concern to the sector. In some countries in Asia such as India, China and the Philippines, BPO is the single largest technology-enabled employer of women where they earn significantly. However, there is considerable debate on the impact of this trend for women in the longterm.

The controversy revolves around who benefits from this new form of employment and the type of work it demands. Some claim that outsourcing has created different requirements for labour – a few highly-skilled professional workers and a vast bulk of semiskilled workers. (Burnout in this sector, is also widely prevalent.) According to Jayati Ghosh’s report to the UNESCAP High Level Inter- Governmental Meeting, outsourcing shows clear signs of labour market segmentation along gender, caste and class. Most women employed in BPOs come from the urban and educated sections of their societies – the upper caste English-speaking elite of India. Ghosh argues that this pattern of development, while reducing unemployment among the educated, will not contribute significantly in reversing the growing feminisation of unemployment but could in the long run reinforce current socio-economic inequities. [13]

On the other hand, research by other scholars on women and ICTs in Asia views outsourcing particularly in India, Malaysia and the Philippines, as a major opportunity for economic empowerment of women who stand to earn an average of $500 a year. Looking at this on a national scale, India’s ICT services and back-office sector, for example, is expected to grow five times to US$57 billion which will provide employment to four million people and account for 7 percent of GDP by 2008. Women’s employment is expected to increase. [Hafkin 6-7]

Content and language

What content will predominate on the internet and in new media? who creates it? what is its cultural bias? are women’s viewpoints, knowledge and interests adequately reflected? how are women portrayed?

These are some of the questions that have been raised regarding content, whether in internet spaces, video games or virtual reality.

Women’s viewpoints, knowledge and interests are inadequately represented while gender stereotypes continue to predominate on the web. True, some of these concerns are extensions of centuries-old issues of sexism and portrayal of women in media. But these also point to a broader range of issues such as the need for women to systematise and develop their own knowledge and perspectives in order for them to be genuinely present in these spaces. [Primo 41]

Dominant languages used in new technologies hinder most women from making use of new knowledge and technology. English and other languages like French, German, Japanese, Korean and Chinese dominate the internet. Billions of people, majority of them poor women, do not understand these languages. [41]

Breaking down language barriers to information access requires the development of applications like multilingual tools and databases, interfaces for non-Latin alphabets, graphic interfaces for illiterate women and automatic translation software. These tools will allow marginalised and minority groups, including women, greater access to the internet.

Massive investment of time and other resources must be put into content development at the local level based on local information needs. This will significantly contribute to women’s access to and relevant use of ICTs. Earnest attention should be paid in recognising women and the poor as information producers by providing relevant trainings in collecting, packaging and disseminating local knowledge. At the same time, new technologies, such as the computer and internet and their convergence with other technologies (e.g. radio, television and print) should be made available to more women and the rural areas. Producing relevant local language content through affordable and easy-to-use technologies that are accessible to an audience with few or no reading skills is crucial if ICTs must meet the needs of women in developing countries.

Power and decision-making

Although women have now entered the ICT industry in increasing numbers than in previous decades, they, however remain under-represented in positions that require decision-making and control of resources. More men than women, whether at the global or national levels occupy ICT decision-making structures in policy and regulatory institutions, ministries responsible for ICTs, and boards and senior management level of private ICT companies. The eschewed proportion of men and women in decision-making positions reflects a narrow view of ICTs and the bias against women – where ICTs are seen as a purely technical area, believed to be men’s field of expertise. (Men are seen as experts in most professional fields but even more so in technical areas.)

Deregulation and privatisation of the telecommunications industry also make decision-making less and less accountable to citizens and local communities further marginalising the role of women in decisionmaking and control of resources. Representation is important in creating conditions and regulations to enable women to maximise the opportunities they can derive from ICTs as well as ensure accountability of institutions that develop ICT policies.

Corollary to this issue is women’s visibility and presence in the ICT field where men are often seen as the main users and producers. It is a must to promote women’s credibility and visibility as experts and decision-makers; they who benefit, use and develop ICTs as much as men do.

Privacy and security

Privacy, security and internet rights are other important areas of concern for women. Women need online spaces where they feel safe from harassment, enjoy freedom of expression and privacy of communication and protection from electronic snooping.

One of the most important democratising aspects of the internet, which is often overlooked, is the creation of private online spaces. The internet provides the opportunity for private spaces beyond national boundaries. It also plays a role in the battle against oppression and exploitation by enabling international sharing of experiences among oppressed sectors and by allowing people living under undemocratic regimes to communicate safely and privately. APC WNSP, among other organisations, has played an important part in utilising this aspect of the internet for advancing democracy, particularly in its advocacy against gender discrimination.

However, some governments and states now want to control the democratic space that exists on the internet. Legislations such as the Regulation of Investigatory Powers (RIP) Act in Britain and the Wiretapping Act in Japan along with other technical resources are being put in place to allow state intervention and monitoring of private internet communication. International agreements are being made between states to combat cybercrime by intercepting private email correspondence.

Some of the states involved in such agreements consider democracy itself as a crime while others engage in doublespeak – they violate the tenets of democracy they claim to uphold. These developments were given a new impetus by the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks. In the name of “the war against terrorism”, serious challenges to fundamental privacy rights are being imposed. Recent moves by the United States government and in some European countries in effect destroy democracy in the name of defending it against terrorism and cybercrime. Unacceptable surveillance measures and racial stereotyping for example are enforced, conditioning the general public to treat these as mere “inconveniences” or “necessary steps” to protect them from terrorist attacks.

Intercepting internet communications and electronic snooping find justification in protecting women, particularly children, from sexual exploitation and putting an end to racist activities. But it is precisely in creating private spaces where victims of abuse can discuss among themselves and with others they trust and have chosen to talk with that has, in fact, proven to be the most powerful weapon against sexual exploitation and racial oppression. Activist-user groups, often operating in APC WNSP member networks, have created many such spaces on the internet.

APC WNSP supports the rights of its members and users to create spaces for private discussions and debates free from monitoring and survei llance. These are freedoms guaranteed by democracy and are essential for empowering exploited and victimised sections of society. APC WNSP works with its member organisations and other civil society groups to defend the privacy of correspondence of its internet communities.

Trafficking of women, pornography and censorship

One of the fiercest debates in the area of Internet Rights concerns freedom of expression and censorship. The use of the internet to perpetuate violence against women and as a platform for hate or racist opinions (or other forms of exploitative and offensive behaviour) is of great concern to all, particularly to women. A sensitive issue is the use of the internet for pornography, sexual exploitation or hate literature. There are 100,000 websites for child pornography alone. [TopTenREVIEWS - September, 2003]

Easy access, relatively low cost and high technical quality of digital television and the internet, as well as the privacy it guarantees to users make pornography mediums attractive to sell. Technological advancement in new cable and telephone lines can now transmit unprecedented number of digital files of pornographic images at extraordinary speed to consumers through computers and other electronic means of communication like digital video disks. The internet provides users with websites and chat rooms and allows them to exchange materials through file transfer protocol (FTP) and engage in live video chats for trafficking and sexual activities. In short, pornography is varied in kind and medium, ubiquitous and easily accessible to most people. [Kee 11-18]

Certainly, it is understandable to argue for censorship amid the large and growing presence of pornography on the internet, albeit a knee-jerk reaction. Legislation on protection opens a wide interpretation with regard to what the state considers ‘harmful’ or ‘illegal’. The alarming trends in cooperation and collaboration between state security services, the aim of which is to share information gathered through surveillance and monitoring of the internet (and other communication tools) present grave and serious human rights implications.

Important spaces and communication possibilities offered by the internet will be compromised by an unyielding advocacy for censorship as a response to the fear of proliferation of pornography. Privacy can be eroded through such regulations and the vital functions played by cyberspace to civil society movements to discuss, communicate and mobilise for transformative action will be greatly hampered, if not obstructed.

Rather than risk the danger of constricting the spaces for women’s content, one compelling approach in relation to pornography and sexual violence on the internet is to increase the spaces for representations of women and sexualities. The capacity for internet spaces to either destabilise or concretise existing discourses on women’s sexuality in gender relations largely depends on access to the development and population of these spaces. [Kee 18] Taken from this angle, the trajectory against pornography and sexual violence is directed at corporations that monopolise cyberspace and earn billions of dollars by perpetuating sexist and masculine pornographic materials.*


Making the connection: putting ICTs to strategic use

Definitely, advocacy for a new information and communication environment must fully integrate gender concerns and women’s advancement. The challenge is to ensure individuals, communities, nations, and the international community to have access to, and effectively use information and knowledge to address developmental challenges and improve lives. At the core of this new environment is democratising people’s access to information and communication facilities and technological resources.

Communication rights remain a core tenet of APC WNSP’s strategies in using ICTs which runs counter to the current hegemonic ownership structure of national and global information networks. ICTs must be made available to all at an affordable cost while the development of infrastructure must ensure that marginalised groups, sectors, and peoples are not further disadvantaged. This should be the strategic starting point for all concerned with gender equality and social transformation. In a globalised world that undermines localised democratic institutions; the internet provides an essential means for defending and extending participatory democracy.

The internet and ICTs can be used to uphold diversity and provide a platform where a multitude of voices are heard, pluralism of ideas and opinions are guaranteed, and crosscultural exchanges are shared. But this can only be true if developments are driven by a desire to preserve and enhance local, national and regional cultural and linguistic diversities and where civil society is heeded in policy formations that regulate control and ownership of the internet.


* TopTenREVIEWS estimates pornography as a USD57 billion-industry worldwide, with 12% of total websites dedicated to pornography. Other forms of digital communications technology such as pay-per-view channels on satellite television are also extensively marketed for adult pornography in addition to older forms of ICTs such as videos. Revenues from pornography are larger than all combined revenues of all professional football, baseball and basketball franchises. In the US, pornography revenue exceeds the combined revenues of ABC, CBS, and NBC ($6.2 billion). Still another disturbing note: child pornography generates $3 billion annually. (September, 2003)


Works Cited:

Ghosh, Jayati. “Globalization and the Economic Empowerment of Women”. UNESCAP High Level Inter-Governmental Meeting to Review the Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and its Regional and Global Outcomes. 2004. 13. Online. esid/GAD/Events/High-level%20meeting%20Sep%202004/English/Jayati%20Ghosh.pdf (n.d.)

Hafkin, Nancy. “Globalization and the economic empowerment of women: Defining and building a gender-responsive information society in the ESCAP region”. UNESCAP. 2004. 6-7. Online. English/Nancy%20Hafkin.pdf

International Telecommunication Union. 2005. at_glance/main02.pdf (n.d.)

Kee, Jackyln. “Cultivating Violence through Technology? Exploring the Connections between Internet Communication Technologies (ICT) and Violence Against Women (VAW)”. Association for Progressive Communications Women’s Networking Support Programme. 2005. 11-18.

McNamara, Kerry. “ICTs, Poverty and Development: Learning from Experience”. InfoDev Annual Symposium. 2003. 3. Online. (n.d.) Nicol, Chris. ed. “Part I, What are ICT and Internet Policies.” ICT Policy: a Beginner’s Handbook. Association for Progressive Communications. 2003. Online. english/rights/handbook/ICT_01.shtml (n.d.)

Primo, Natasha. Gender Issues in the Information Society. ed. Iskra Panevska. Paris: UNESCO, 2003. Online. URL_ID=12847&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html (n.d.)

Ramilo, Concepcion and Pi Villanueva. “Issues, Policies and Outcomes: Are ICT Policies Addressing Gender Equality?” United Nations ESCAP Expert Group Meeting. 2001. 6. Online. (n.d.)

Slater, Don and Jo Tacchi. ICT Innovations for Poverty Reduction. New Delhi: UNESCO, 2004. 89. Online. (n.d.) Spence, Randy. ICTs for Poverty Reduction: When, Where and How? International Development Research Center (IDRC), 2003. 4-6. “Internet Pornography Statistics”. Internet Filter Review. http:// (n.d.)

Wood, Peregrine. “Gender and Information and Communication Technology: Towards an Analytical Framework”. Association for Progressive Communications Women’s Networking Support Programme. (c.1998 or 1999). Online. research/analytical-framework.html (n.d.)